The current state and future development prospects
The main task of the specialized network of Rosgidromet wetland stations is to carry out wetlands hydrometeorological monitoring to assess changes in the water-thermal regime of wetlands, as well as forecasting both climate changes and changes occurring under the influence of anthropogenic impact on the environment. Based on the materials of complex research and regime observations of the stations, practical tasks related to the construction of objects of economic activity in the swamps, areal development of wetlands and their protection are being solved. As information on the regime of wetlands is accumulated, the tasks for further research in the field of wetland hydrology are clarified.
For 65 years of operation of the Zelenogorsk bog station, a unique material has been obtained on the hydrometeorological regime of the Lammin-Suo bog. This material contains almost all aspects of the water-thermal regime and the water and heat balance components of this bog massif. As the Lammin-Suo bog is a representative of the bog massifs of the North-West of the Russian Federation, the patterns of hydrological and hydrophysical processes identified in this bog can be attributed to unexplored high bogs of the studied region. The analysis of the results of the generalization of the obtained materials gives grounds for setting further research tasks both in the Lammin-Suo bog and in the field of the wetland hydrology in general.
The emergence of new technical means for obtaining, transmitting and processing observational data opens up broad possibilities, both in refining the results of previously performed observations and research, and in solving the emerging scientific and practical problems. The scientific tasks of wetland hydrology include the following:
- study of the degree of constancy in time of Кz = f (z) and z = f (z) dependencies for different bog microlandscapes changing in the process of array evolution in order to correct the parameters in the formulas for calculating the flow from the bogs and predictions of changes in moisture reserves in the peat deposit;
- organization of hydrochemical monitoring in high bogs for pollution of the land surface from the atmosphere to assess the nature and intensity of this process, as there are no other ways to study it in the temperate zone;
- large-scale instrumental determinations of the nature and intensity of vertical water exchange in raised bogs with underlying mineral soils in order to assess the magnitude of such water exchange for various regions of the country;
- research on the new in terms of the accuracy of measurements of the temperature level of the surface of the swamps and its features for a deeper knowledge of the evaporation processes from the swamps, freezing and thawing of the peat deposit, heat exchange in the active layer in order to correct the calculated dependencies;
- development of a method for predicting a fire hazard situation for wetlands based on hydrometeorological factors causing it;
- development of methods for determining the diffuse runoff from wetlands and the assessment of its value to clarify the calculation of the water balance of raised bogs;
- study of the mode of fluctuations of the surface of the swamp with the help of modern technical means to improve the accuracy of determining the calculated surface of the swamp;
- determination of the direction and intensity of the modern bog formation process in various regions of the country;
- study of the chemical composition of marsh waters by the depth of the peat deposit in order to determine the “nature” of the marsh waters and the nature of the process of vertical water exchange with the underlying bog mineral grounds;
- study of the mode of evaporation from the swamp at the level of daily values to determine the temporal and spatial variation of evaporation and clarify the parameters of the calculated dependencies;
- determination of the age of marsh waters at different depths of the peat deposit in order to establish their “nature” in the study of the genesis of the marshes.
In this regard, the following tasks should be included among the priorities for swamp stations:
- wetlands hydrometeorological monitoring implementation (according to the updated standard observation program);
- carrying out experimental work on the determination of the coefficients of filtration and water loss in the marsh microlandscapes that have changed over the past 50-60 years (during the evolution of the massif);
- conducting instrumental surveys of the vertical water exchange of wetlands with underlying mineral soils based on observations of the regime of the levels of swamp and groundwater;
- conducting observations of the hydrochemical regime in the central part of the raised bog massifs to assess the extent of land surface pollution from the atmosphere;
- carrying out experimental work on the definition of diffuse runoff from high bogs;
- observation of swamp surface oscillations with the help of modern technical means;
- observations of the thermal and ice regime of the internal bog lakes;
- monitoring the intensity of growth and expansion of bog massifs.
Technical re-equipment of the marsh stations should be started with the Zelenogorsk field experimental base, that is the methodical center of the marsh observation network. In the Lammin-Suo swamp it is necessary to check the operation of new devices and equipment in the field in order to develop recommendations for their installation, reliable protection and efficient use of the swamp stations and posts of Roshydromet at the specialized network. Experience in the automation and modernization of observations at the Lammin-Suo bog will be in demand when implementing a project for the technical re-equipment and modernization of the specialized network of Rosgidromet bog stations.